What is an Index Fund?

Mutual Funds, Stock Market

Index fund was first invented by Jack Bogle in 1970, unlike mutual funds, index funds are managed passively, so nobody has to consider fund management and pay their fees as there is the body doing work or buying and selling for you. An index fund is an easy, diversified, low-cost way to invest in the stock market.

Index fund creates a portfolio of stocks that has the collection of companies and the performance of a market index, such as the S&P 500. Index funds are passively managed so they have lower fees when actively managed funds, often generating higher investment returns.



Dependable performance

Investors get the same return as the index, which minus fund-management costs. 

If we talk historically, index funds have better returns than actively managed funds.  


Lower costs

Unlike mutual funds and the composition of portfolio in mutual funds by fund management, the composition of an index fund’s portfolio rarely changes, which results in lower trading costs and lower taxes for the investor. And fund’s operating costs reduce as there’s no need to hire portfolio managers. Active fund costs are about 1.3%, or $1.30 for every $100,( on average)



Investors can see fund holdings anytime they want as many index funds simply hold what’s in the index which does not change (most of the time). An investor gets an opportunity by transparency to better judge an index fund’s risk based on those holdings.



Simple diversification

You can get a portfolio of hundreds or thousands of companies at once just by a single purchase, with no need to buying individual stocks and attempting to create your portfolio. The diversification minimizes the risk cause if one stock is down (for the day or a year), another is probably up. 




Lack of flexibility

As the index fund’s law is to track the index, no matter what the market direction is,  the fund typically holds the same securities. The fund manager can’t sell stocks that are not performing.


Rarely outperforms the index

The returns of the index fund usually can’t outperform the benchmark, the reason for that is a lack of flexibility. Tracking error: The difference between an index fund’s return and the performance of its parent index is a reflection of the costs to run a portfolio. This is called a “tracking error.” When comparing index funds that track the same index, always go for the one with a smaller tracking error. 


Management differences

Indexes are created by companies that determine an index makeup.  So, the decision-making process is not always transparent and can be influenced by overall management approaches.

Factors to be considered before buying an index fund.


  • It is important to decide on how much risk are you willing to take for the anticipated return.
  • What are the risks associated with the fund?
  • Does this fund’s strategy fit your investment goals?
  • How much willing to pay for buying, owning, and selling the fund.
  • Comparing funds that are covering the same sector is a good way to compare costs. How soon you need the money.


How to buy.


-An index fund can directly from a mutual fund company or a brokerage. 

-Before selection do consider if you want to purchase index funds from various fund families? Because, big mutual fund companies may carry some of their competitors’ funds, but the selection may be more limited than what’s available in a discount broker’s lineup.

-For convenience find a single provider who can meet all your needs. In case, If you’re just going to invest in mutual funds, a mutual fund company may be able to serve as your investment hub. But if you require experienced stock research and a discount broker that also sells the index funds you want may be better.

Consider how much a broker or fund company charges to buy or sell the index fund If the commission or transaction fee isn’t waived. Mutual fund commissions are usually higher than stock trading ones.

See if there are some Commission-free options.

– Are they offering no-transaction-fee mutual funds or commission-free ETFs?


Pick an index

Index mutual funds track various indexes. There are many indexes and corresponding index funds that are composed of stocks or other assets. Chose based on Company size and capitalization. Index funds that track small, medium-sized, or large companies and geography. 

Funds that focus on consumer goods, technology, and health-related businesses.

Such as funds that track domestic and foreign bonds, commodities and cash, etc. Some best index funds with low costs in 2020. The most popular class of index funds is linked to the S&P 500 by far.

Here are some of the best index funds attached to the S&P 500.



This fund was first founded in 1976 and is the oldest of all index funds. This fund is giving exposure to 500 of the largest U.S. companies, which is about 75% of the U.S. stock market’s total value.



This is one of the cheapest and most reachable S&P 500-tracking funds. It was launched in 1997.

Schwab fund charges a minimal 0.02% expense ratio and it requires no minimum investment. Which is ideal for investors concerned about costs.



This fund was founded in 1988 also known as the Institutional Premium Class fund. Fidelity removed this fund’s investment minimum last year, to offer investors with any budget size to get into the low-cost index fund action.



This Fidelity fund is considered the lowest of low-cost index funds by being among the first to charge no annual expenses, which means investors can keep all their cash invested for the long run.



This was founded in 1990. This fund’s expense ratio is competitive with other providers, but the $2,500 minimum may be expensive for beginning investors.



Investing in an index fund is pretty safe and less expensive than mutual fund investment, you can have a whole set of different stocks within a package. The only thing to take into consideration is its lack of flexibility that can cause loss at some point.

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